Chickpea is a legume, also known as Bengal gram or channa. They are divided in two types Desi and Kabuli. The classification is based on seed size, color, and the thickness and shape of the seed coat. Desi types tend to be smaller, angular seeds with thick seed coats that range in color from light tan and speckled to solid black.
'Desi' chickpeas have a markedly higher fibre content than other varieties, hence a very low glycemic index, which may make them suitable for people with blood sugar problems.
The 'Desi' type is used to make chana dal, which is a split chickpea with the skin removed.
Source from Wikipedia
'Kabuli' is lighter-coloured, larger, and with a smoother coat. The name means "from Kabul" in Hindi and Urdu, and this variety was thought to come from Kabul, Afghanistan when it was introduced to India in the 18th century. It is called Kabuli chana (काबुली चणा) in Marathi.
Its seeds are high in protein. It is one of the earliest cultivated legumes: 7,500-year-old remains have been found in the Middle East. Chickpeas are a nutrient-dense food, providing rich content (> 20% of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fibre, folate, and certain dietary minerals such as iron and phosphorus. Thiamin, vitamin B6, magnesium, and zinc contents are moderate, providing 10-16% of the DV. Chickpeas have a protein digestibility corrected amino acid score of about 0.76, which is higher than many other legumes and cereals.
According to WHO and UNFAO, proteins in cooked and germinated chickpeas are rich in essential amino acids. A 100-g serving of cooked chickpeas provides 164 kilocalories (690 kJ). Carbohydrates make up 68% of calories, most of which (84%) is starch, followed by total sugars and dietary fibre.Lipid content is 3%, 75% of which is unsaturated fatty acids for which linoleic acid comprises 43% of total fat.
India is the world leader in chickpea (Bengal gram) production, and produces some 15 times as much as the second-largest producer, Australia. Between 80 and 90 percent of the world’s chickpea supply is from India.